The Tompkins Land Donation: Shedding Light on Chile’s Conservation Conundrum

Were not wise sons descendant of the wise,
and did not heroes from brave heroes arise.
-The Odyssey

Written by Fidgit

Patagonia took us almost 4 months to cross on foot at the price of blood, sweat, tears, close encounters, and disease; it will always hold a piece of my heart. Lately, as many of you have probably noticed, it’s been in the news. Much of the press to arise regarding the Tompkins land donation to the Chilean government focus on the act of the gift, but fail to address whether Chile’s park system is prepared to manage it. The key element to the success of this historical event will be the interplay of private and public lands, specifically regarding those intended for conservation.

This is a massive and complex topic. My endeavor here is to look at the gift in light of the condition and diligence which exist in Chile currently, what these parks systems demand, and how we need to revolutionize them. To that end I draw on a variety of sources ranging from experiences in the field to research articles.

I am going to break the article into pieces. The aim will be, first, to explain what has recently transpired regarding the Tompkins donation to Chile; then, to give a bit of background on the major players. From there, I will highlight some of the thoughts of affected parties; and finally, try to pull it all together with perspectives for moving forward.


What just happened

In short, something unprecedented.

In March 2017, Kristine McDivitt Tompkins, the widow of Doug Tompkins, signed a pledge with Chilean President, Michelle Bachelet, to give over 1 million acres of the Tompkins’ land and park infrastructure to the Chilean government. This is generally agreed to be the largest land donation from a private entity to a government in history. The Tompkins Foundation leveraged the gift into converting 11 million acres of land into national parks.

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Michelle, left, Kris, right.     PC: AP photo

What Kris and Michelle signed was a pledge; essentially, a millionaire and politician’s version of a pinkie promise. Chile then announced a plan to rename the Carretera Austral the “Route of Parks,” accessing some 17 current and proposed national parks. It seems the Tompkins’ focus is, and always has been, on conservation; however, what I have seen to date from the Chilean government is more focused on driving the growing tourism industry in the region.

While these things are not mutually exclusive, they could lead to a long term disparity. As the research paper by David Tecklin and Claudia Sepulveda “The Diverse Properties of Private Land Conservation in Chile: Growth and Barriers to Private Protected Areas in a Market-friendly Context” puts it, “legal property theorists have long highlighted the dynamic, highly social, and complex character of property rights, and have pointed out the inherent tensions between the different purposes that property is meant to serve. “

No matter how you look at it, this pledge is an indicator of the beginning of a turning point. Now the hard work begins, and how it is handled will decide the fate of Patagonia and her people. As one American conservationist put it, “The one looming issue has been that they are making the donation without an accompanying management endowment, and it seems clear that neither country [Chile and Argentina] will be able to adequately steward such huge tracts.”

He elaborates, “But Tompkins Conservation and some other very smart people have been working behind the scenes to raise the money and develop the technical capacity to ensure that there will be a substantial focus on managing the new parks. And of course they have been brilliant about leveraging very large land matches from the Chilean government.” The vision and hope seems to be that this gift motivate Chile and its people to step up.

In an interview with NPR, Kris explains, “we [she and Doug] grew up within the national parks here in the United States. And there is a sense of, I would even say, ownership by every American who goes through the front gates of Yellowstone or Yosemite, that those are public parks. They belong to everybody. And Chile is no different. We hope that somehow between the creation of national parks, the development of what we call economic development as a consequence of conservation that precious masterpieces of the country will be preserved forever.”

In short, this is one of the most massive leaps of faith our generation has seen.


Background about the players

In this section I seek to give a summary of Patagonia, The Chilean Government, CONAF, and the Tompkins.

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Map of the territories of the original patagonian inhabitants

Patagonia was named for a mythical tribe of giants, called the Patagones, or “big feet.”  The earliest written documents come from European explorers in the 1500s, such as Magellan and Sir Francis Drake, whose contact was limited to being by boat, as the focus at the time was on the Spice Race.

The fjords, austere peaks, glacier fields, and tangled forests, left the inland regions largely to the natives, such as the Tehuelche and Mapuche, for several hundred years more. Settlers began to move into the area in the late 1800s both from Europe and inland. Around this time Argentina and Chile began sparring for control of the territory. In 1818, thanks to the efforts of San Martin, Chile emerged from under Spanish rule.

In the last 50 years the Chilean Government has moved between socialism, dictatorship, and democracy. Much of the infrastructure in southern Chile, as well as land and resource privatization across the country, happened under the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, who ruled from 1973 to 1990. The Carretera Austral, for example, was one of his pet projects. The cost in human lives and freedom which went into it, is cause for a lingering distaste among many Chileans and ostensibly, is why progress on the Carretera Austral has been slow in past decades.

For a long time Patagonians did not strongly identify with either Chilean nor Argentine central governments. As we walked across the region, we spoke with several people who remain resentful and mistrustful of the central powers, expressing that they were ignored until the exploitation of renewable energy resources (largely water reserves, both free flowing and in glaciers) drew attention. In speaking with one 3rd generation Patagonian he said, “first I am Patagonian, second I am Chilean.”

Today it is one of the final frontiers. The modern day wild west. And tourists are flocking from all over the world. Prices have soared accordingly.

The government has moved aggressively in recent decades to capitalize on natural resources, ranging from dams in Patagonia to solar in the Atacama. Again drawing on the work of Tecklin and Sepulveda, Chile’s distribution of property rights divides them “to an extreme level.” Various legal and constitutional sources have set it up such that “rights to freshwater, subsoil minerals, geothermal water and energy, and the coastal inter-tidal zone are all fully separate from land or ‘real property’ itself. Under these specific laws third parties can constitute rights that overlap physically and functionally with land property, without any priority of access on the part of the landowner.”

Dividing up rights to resources in this way has serious effects both on people who live on and own land in Chile. For example, it restricts residents on use of water flowing through their yards. They watch unhappily as rivers in their communities are dammed (as we wrote about last year). Even for someone with access to funds and desire to own all the rights as a part of their property, no privately protected area in Tecklin and Sepulveda’s study, “has been able to systematically acquire and hold rights to all resources within its boundaries. This is due to the legal and administrative complexities, the high costs of soliciting or maintaining rights, and political opposition to such consolidations.”

Vast tracks of Chile’s land have been decimated by logging and other profit-oriented efforts. One which stands out in my mind was as we began walking, south even of Patagonia, along the senos around Punta Arenas. Climbing the hills outside of the port city we moved into gale force winds sweeping across where a once mighty forest of Arctic Beech had stood. The weathered stumps stretched as far as we could see. We ended up taking shelter from a snow storm that night in a single remaining square of trees.

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Razed forest in the Magallanes region of Chile, outside Punta Arenas.

Meanwhile the town below was rebuilding bridges and widening waterways for the ever increasing floods which wash through the city streets annually from the Río Las Minas. The once narrow valley above the city had been stripped to make way for a mine (which has since ceased to produce and been abandoned), the trees which held together the banks of the valley were still being removed based on the theory that when the floods come, it is the washed out trees which do the most structural damage, so if trees are removed then the flooding will be less of an issue. Thus, the floods each year, widen the valley ever further. Standing on the crest of that valley, looking down at the city, I saw several small dams, intended to stymie the floods, which had been washed out as well.

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Fidgit above the Rio Las Minas Valley, Punta Arenas in the background.

In 2012 the Tompkins put a lot of resources into a fight against the creation of an altogether different kind of dam. Patagonia Sin Represas was and is a social movement which at its height, turned into an all out showdown between the scant population of the Aysén Region and ENDESA, a subsidiary of ENEL (a multinational manufacturer and distributor of electricity and gas). It began over their building HidroAysén, one of 5 mega-dams, which would flood massive tracts of national park and private land. The dam project had passed all the environmental impact studies and had the backing of the Chilean government, and particularly from then Chilean President Piñera. Only after a drawn out legal battle, was the project rolled back (though the mega dams continue in other regions).

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The ‘tu problema es mi problema’ (Your problem is my problem) united the population of Aysen, from fishermen to those who opposed the building of dams. The protest succeeded in drawing the attention of the central government, though, not in the way the people had intended. PC: Territorios en Red

CONAF, the National Forest Corporation, the Chilean public/private hybrid version of a Forest Service, was created in 1970 and is tasked with managing national natural resources and parks. Most of the park employees we encountered when hiking through parks were CONAF employees, who draw on a large community of young volunteers, generally heralding from Santiago. Again, citing Tecklin and Sepulveda, this institution, “has remained in a legally precarious and chronically underfunded situation (Espinoza 2010). Political discourses around the public PA system have been poorly articulated, reflecting the low priority that it has received since its inception.”

From early in our interactions with the park guards it seemed clear their main interest is to make as little work for themselves as possible. A few times when I felt I could inquire, they cited that they were not paid enough to do anything more than the bare minimum.

Maintenance even on some of the most famous trails (The “W route” of Torres del Paine, for example) was not exactly inspiring. Free camping sites across most parks were usually trashed and often where there were restrooms, they were locked and water was shut off. When we asked, they explained these were free campsites and if we wanted amenities, such as sanitation, we needed to go to the private pay-sites.

Our experience of the Chilean parks’ inefficiency came to a culmination in February 2017 when, as fires were raging on the coast, we came in to Parque Rio Clarillo just south of Santiago, as usual, from the back way, descending from the mountains. The park seemed abandoned. We wondered at this, until we exited the front gate and passed through 4 rounds of CONAF employees telling us we couldn’t be there because all of the national parks were closed. Why? Due to fires burning in a different region, posing no threat to that area. That’s right, CONAF shut down nature. Sound familiar? (I’m looking at you, USA circa 2013 Government Shutdown).

One more example of the Chilean government’s lack of follow through, which particularly galled me, is all the website information and books available for purchase by and for the “Sendero de Chile.” Rolled out by the Chilean government to celebrate the 2010 bicentennial of the country, originally it was aimed to create an 8,500 km long trail running the length of the country. A lot of money and resources went into the initiative up front. They even flew in trail builders from around the world to teach CONAF and volunteers how to build trails. As the initial funds and enthusiasm shriveled, so did that dream. A story which has played out time and again on many fronts in Chile, as the government has changed hands time and again.

Chile, in its current political iteration, is quite young, being only decades old in many ways. In a recent conversation, a friend reminded me that in early exploration, everyone makes mistakes. The editors of this piece have time and again reminded me of the importance first to give context and grace. Action and accountability can and must also be woven in, to generate progress. Information, preparation, determination, and renovation are keys to moving forward. While Chile is young, what the Tompkins are doing is heretofore unheard of.

Cerro Kristina.

Doug Tompkins in front of Cerro Kristina, which he named after his wife. PC: Nat Geo blog

The final major players in this story are Doug and Kristine Tompkins. In the 1960s, Doug Tompkins co-founded and ran the North Face and Espirit brands with his first wife. He fell in love with Patagonia and his second wife, here referred to as Kris, in the 1990s. He came to know these lands deeply, making first ascents and exploring unnamed peaks and lakes. Private Protected Areas [PPA] began to appear in Chile in the late 1980s, early 1990s, and Doug and Kris were at the forefront. Their focus was on land conservation and environmental activism. To realize their vision they bought massive tracts of land across Chile and Argentina and began ‘rewilding’ them by removing ranches, fences, and other structures.

According to Tecklin and Sepulveda, “In the absence of a legal framework for private conservation, the Tompkins have used multiple strategies, none of which fit well with market-based characterisations of private land conservation. These have included attempts to weave together existing legal tools and ownership structures to make the future sale or exploitation of conservation lands difficult. Primarily, however, they have sought to pass property to the Chilean state for the creation of national parks, including Tompkins’ offer in 2012 to donate all of his large properties in Chile for this purpose.”

They were able to initiate conservation efforts across a scope well beyond most measures. According to a Montecarlo Time article, “Asked why she focused her efforts in South America, [Kris] Tompkins noted that the conservation potential was large—some areas were threatened by logging and intensive agriculture—and the land relatively cheap.” The unprecedented breadth of their work goes beyond the amount of land they held and delves into the scope of projects (see Tompkins Conservation Website).

As one of our editors adds, “They were able to protect land at an enormous scale, allowing them to accomplish truly world-changing conservation. Who remembers the political skirmishes that dominated the debates over the creation of places like Yosemite, Yellowstone or the Adirondack parks in the US?  The people who created these places are now unanimously heralded as visionaries.  And I think that it is very likely that that the Tompkins’ will be remembered the same way in 100 years.”

The Tompkins are invested in “rewilding” and ascribe strongly to a structure of ideas which I am not equipped to fully or fairly explain. One of these ideas with which I am familiar is the “Half Earth Project which was proposed by my favorite ant man, E. O. Wilson in his book Half-Earth which, “proposes an achievable plan to save our imperiled biosphere: devote half the surface of the Earth to nature.”

Much like my understanding of Doug himself, it was all or nothing. Either the lands are wild, or their use is hurdling us deeper into the extinction crisis of the Anthropocene age. Again by contribution of one of our editors, “there are far too few conservationists working to create forever wild, ecological reserves. The great majority of us make deep compromises to accommodating a variety of sustainable land uses, notably agriculture and forestry, which sometimes is genuinely sustainable, and often is not.”

Douglas Tompkins died living out Edward Abbey’s call, “it is not enough to fight for the land it is even more important to enjoy it while you can, while it’s still here.” He perished after a kayaking accident on Lago General Carrera in 2015. We passed there on our hike the next year and as I gazed out across the choppy blue lake, I wondered whether there is any better way to meet the end of one’s life than among friends, doing what you love, and fighting diligently and as best you know how for what you believe in.

The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man.

~George Bernard Shaw

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Doug Tompkins flashes a smile on the Middle Fork San Joaquin. September 1980.  PC: Canoe & Kayak



Contemplations and Concerns

In this section, I outline some of the concerns and questions to arise around this land gift. In short these are: some straw man arguments, impugning sense of national identity, concern for losing the frontiersman, whether this move makes it accessible to the local population, and whether the government is really going to be long-term stewards of the land.

Let’s start with the straw man arguments. There were and still are outlandish accusations that the Tompkins’ actions were a land grab to establish a Jewish state, that they were members of a cult, or were setting up a base for CIA spies to intervene in national affairs. These are generally regarded as laughable by everyone from the ground level up and are withering with time and, particularly, in light of Kris’ pledge.

The Tompkins’ land acquisitions were met with skepticism from many Chileans. In 2016, we were still seeing “Patagonia sin Tompkins” bumper stickers, a response to the “Patagonia sin Represas” stickers from the 2012 battle cited above, which we saw far more often. This is the uphill battle against old ways of thinking.

A sense of national pride has been injured by having a foreigner intervene in such a huge way. As Marcela from Villa O’Higgins, reflects, “it is difficult in these times to understand a person, a philanthropist, a conservationist on top of that, is difficult to accept. Especially when consumerism makes you only see one thing, that those who have money want more and not to give it away, as he has done.” That said, Doug and Kris’ actions go against MOST people’s way of understanding.

Still, there are reasons for sentiments against outsiders purchasing large tracts of Chilean land. One example is the German businessman Víctor Petermann. As Jan explained in his comprehensive rundown of the Greater Patagonian Trail:

During the later days of the Pinochet Regime large parts of the state owned forest around the Lago Pirihueico were sold under obscure circumstances to the German immigrant Victor Petermann. He later converted the forest into a “private for profit natural reserve”. The emphasis seems to be the profit and not so much the natural reserve. Permanently manned gates now limit access to guests of the luxury resorts on this immense property. Wood logging continues in more hidden parts of the “profit reserve”. When we attempted to take the former public road from Puerto Fuy to Pirihueico we were turned back on several of the gates.

It seems reasonable that after almost two decades of having large tracts of their land sold by Pinochet to wealthy foreigners, locals were dubious of the Tompkins purchasing thousands of hectares, and promising to one day return the lands to the interest of the people. This was a promise existing against the backdrop of dozens of examples of underhanded manipulations, and the Tompkins’ efforts are entirely unprecedented anywhere.

A second concern we heard was if Doug did give the land back, whether it would be accessible for locals’ purposes (largely ranching). This relates to a concern about loss of Chilean identity, edging out the way of the gauchos. The quintessential Chilean cowboy, the legend, Don Rial, who has worked the remote valleys between Villa O’Higgins and Cochrane, delivered his favorite one-liner on the matter, saying “the Tompkins are making a ranch for mountain lions and guanacos.”

As a friend from Cochrane explains,what he sees as the primary local concern is, “that we have lost our culture and an activity which defines these lands, which generates identity by working livestock, which, to some extent, is true.” From what we observed, the Patagonian settlers are hard workers and, by and large, good stewards of the land, though the temptation of an easy buck, when laid on the table, is hard to pass up.

The Tompkins’ ethos does not leave room for the residence of settlers maintaining the ranching lifestyle, instead it focuses on redirecting them. As our conservationist cited above points out, “As for local people, there has been the misconception that the Tompkins were not supportive of local communities. My observation is that the opposite is true in Chile. They have engaged with and employed local communities and been good for local economies.” At the same time, it is clear that much of the efforts on their reserves have engaged volunteers from abroad to help dismantle the fences and settlement structures of the pioneers, while construction crews raise eco-friendly, posh lodges.

Whereas an outsider might see those who choose to live on the frontier as impoverished, they make and cultivate almost everything they need and often seemed quite content and, we found, were happy to share what they have. What is more, removing them from the land and prohibiting their way of life takes away what they draw pride from, working animals and knowing the land.  Removing these people, who worked the land all their lives, forces them to move into towns and cities; thus, placing them on the lowest wrung of a chain they never wanted to be on in the first place. Dismantling the frontier structure and pushing the settlers out is a black or white move which removes perhaps the most knowledgeable, invested, and grounded stewards.

In the Montecarlo article cited earlier, “Reflecting on why she [Kris] was donating her private parks to Chile, she told an audience at Yale University last year, “We could have locked up our land; it would have been cheaper. But if you don’t make your land public, you’re losing half its value.” The implication is that the land being accessible to the general public is important to informing that public so they will work to brighten their own future.

This leads to the next question, will this land gift open the door and attract the general public?

Following the path of least resistance and current precedent in Chile would mean, no, it is not accessible. Current trends are already moving in that direction. At least not to the general public and even less so the average Chilean. As Matias, one of the more illuminated wilderness guides we have met along the way explains it:

“Monetarily it is ever less accessible for Chileans to get to know and explore our own mountain ranges. The prices of services are through the roof, that combines with the lack of vision and commitment to safeguarding and protecting the environment. In my opinion it is the exploitation of tourism lodges without mitigating measures, nor protection to the flora and fauna. In Torres del Paine you no longer see birds along the trails. The entrance and camping fees make it impossible for a Chilean of middle means to know these places. Much less schools/students.”

Recall, we are contending with a similar issue in the United States. Locals are not engaging with their parks next door. The USA Parks systems are severely lacking “in their consideration for local community development and supporting that in a sustainable way- the core focus has been on tourism and tourism dollars, which is now leading to the US visitors ‘loving their parks to death,'” as Greta, an adventurer and sustainability thought partner who lives and works in Chile, notes.

It is widely acknowledged, even among Chileans themselves, that most Chileans have a garbage problem, in that they throw it everywhere. We saw this being manifested in what we came to call the “toilet paper flower gardens” which bloomed all around national park campsites (remember- closed bathrooms). When we “friendly trespassed” on private land, whenever possible we would approach landowners to ask permission for access. In conversation these Chilean landowners expressed mistrust other Chileans using their land because of trash and abuse, but welcomed us as foreigners.

So where has this line of inquiry taken us? Those who live on the land and work it are running it into the ground. Those Chileans who would visit it, can’t afford to and when they do, they trash it. Who else is there? Foreigners. While many locals think all foreigners are wealthy, Parque Patagonia knows better.

Neon and I felt out of place sitting in the lawns of the massive buildings of Parque Patagonia Headquarters last year. It is a plot of lush green luxury in the otherwise arid Chacabuco valley. We were ushered out of the buildings because you have to take your shoes off to enter. I’m a thru-hiker, trust me, you don’t want me to take my shoes off and all I wanted was a bathroom, though I’d be just as happy peeing under this massive willow tree.

Probably because of hiker trash like us coming through last season we learned that this summer Parque Patagonia moved the campground several kilometers down the road, away from the headquarters. So, the parks and infrastructure are not for the locals, nor the average Chilean, also the cash-strapped traveler should be kept at a safe distance.

So, what “public” are these parks going to be accessible to?

I don’t have an answer for that. I’m just a dirty hiker and all I know are trails. And what I know of those are that the best maintained trails we hiked in Patagonia were the paths taken by gauchos and arrieros moving their animals seasonally across private or otherwise disregarded land. Some of the worst maintained, most overused, and grossly trashed trails were ones in national parks.

Greta corroborates, citing her own experiences:

“When we rode horseback across Patagonia, we passed through a wide variety of wild places, as well as private (with permission) and developed places. We were moving in a manner that was historically typical for the locals, but not so typical for the tourism industry. We felt the areas where the ‘way things were’ are rubbing up against ‘the way things are’, and ‘the way things will be.’  

We couldn’t ride through National Parks because we traveled with dogs (which is very common for gauchos/and locals). We packed out every last piece of trash and waste we generated in the backcountry, and saw little trash in the wild places still maintained by gauchos; yet witnessed shocking amounts of litter when we rode along the Carretera Austral and along National Parks bordering the road.

Since moving to Chile several years ago, we’ve traveled through much of the country, backpacking across many of the parks, and to be frank, I haven’t seen a substantial effort throughout this country to manage parks in a progressive or sustainable way. The concept of Leave No Trace still seems to be a new one, and many parks do not have effective waste management systems or trail maintenance systems that empower visitors to get out and explore with confidence that they won’t end up lost unless they hire a guide. In many ways, we are still lacking imagination and resources.”

Of the Chileans I have spoken with about the transition of land from the Tomkins’ hands to the government, every single one has expressed reservations as to whether the government is up to the task. The comments section of a Spanish EMOL article about the matter overflows with remarks pointing to parks, airports, hospitals, all sorts of neglected projects, begun with much pomp and circumstance, which dwindled into neglect.

As we walked through the region we saw massive government billboards with a beautiful picture of what is being developed, boasting the price paid, timeline (often long since past), and construction party hired; standing over an empty lot. We’ve also moved through tourism infrastructure where you can see all the money and dreams that went into it up front, now crumbling.

This leads one to ask, why would the Tompkins opt to give the land to the Chilean government? As Kris explains in an NPR interview, “there is a sense of.  .  . ownership by every American who goes through the front gates of Yellowstone or Yosemite, that those are public parks. They belong to everybody. And Chile is no different. We hope that somehow between the creation of national parks, the development of what we call economic development as a consequence of conservation that precious masterpieces of the country will be preserved forever.”

The doubt I’ve heard from many Chileans and those who know the country is whether those precious masterpieces really will be preserved forever. Matias from above puts it simply, “it seems to me a gift which we Chileans do not deserve. I sincerely believe that neither CONAF nor the government know how to manage natural areas.”

In that awareness, that self-critique, I believe lies the seed of hope for the forest and wildlands and the potential for Chile’s future as a world leader in protected areas.


Potential- Where does it go from here

The Tompkins Foundation seem to be playing this one close to the chest. There is not much information out there about conditions and plans for the long term preservation of the land. This makes sense, considering they are likely in the midst of negotiations with the Chilean government.

According to an email reply to my inquiries from the Tompkins Conservation:

We are still in the initial phases of this donation process and do not have all of the terms and conditions formalized. President Bachelet and Kristine Tompkins signed a pledge for the creation of 10 million new acres of national parks in March, 2017, but the parks have yet to be formally transferred over to government control. Before this transfer takes place, the terms will be solidified to ensure a smooth transition and long-lasting protection for the lands and wildlife.

In the NPR article cited above Kris acknowledges they know there are many who are curious what is going into it but is proceeding with the deal because she believes, “Chile does have the desire to run these parks in a world-class fashion. And I think the most stable means to protect these lands is in the form of national parks.”

The closest I have found to something concrete regarding ongoing support is mention of creating a Chilean-based Friends of National Parks foundation.  According to one article, “To support the government in this ambitious endeavor, Tompkins Conservation, together with key partners, is committing to creating a Chilean-based Friends of National Parks foundation for ongoing park support.” So, things are moving with hope, idealism, and a lot of positive dialogue.

This lack of information has created space for conjecture, therefore, the ideas shared in this section are just that, ideas. Hopes. The first point is, based on several of the links shared throughout the earlier sections, setting sights on the American Park system as a paradigm is to undershoot the potential for progress this could mean as a global community.

This land gift places Chile in a position to either shine or sink. Again, borrowing from Greta, “Chile is in a position to change the dynamics and bring local community impact into the conversation of local conservation efforts- they are intertwined and interwoven and inevitably impact one another.”

From this vantage point, for the long term success in both protecting the land and making it accessible to the public, there needs to be a significant component of education regarding protecting natural resources for the Chileans themselves, a way to make it accessible to those of limited resources, and a source of ongoing human and financial support for maintenance. What would be nice on top of that is some sort of project to enable those nationals who wish to pursue a responsible “frontiersman lifestyle.”

One audacious hope we might hold is that this gift and added responsibility be enough to provoke an overhaul of CONAF, if they are to be the entity responsible for the long term maintenance of these lands and resources.

Working at Philmont Scout Ranch over several years, a large reserve of private land in New Mexico held by the Boy Scouts of America, I observed the ranch operating both as a hiking destination and a working cattle ranch. So I believe there is a middle ground, a way to conserve both the landscape, people, and traditions.

Reflecting on several months of traveling on horseback through Patagonia, Greta shares an idea of how this might look,

“large scale agriculture has definitely done a number on many areas of Patagonia- and the impact of overgrazing was intense the closer we got to Coyhaique. I think the dynamic of all the other economies pushing into the region (aside from tourism) is also a point to note. What is happening in Patagonia is an opportunity for us to be creative about what happens to the people working in an industry when it is pushed out- and agriculture is a key industry to consider, as in many ways it was the easiest one for the gaucho culture to transition into.

When we were in Puerto Cisnes, I sat at the dinner table with a quiet old gaucho and tears streamed down his face as he described how deeply he longed to live as he used to, up in the mountains with his horses and dogs. He had long since lost his job on a ranch, and his family sold their land, moving them into town. Now he spent his days standing on the street looking for a daily job he could fill to cover the cost of his food. When we’d ridden into town, he rushed to us, his limp slowing him slightly, and told us we must come and stay with him on the small property outside of town that he care-took. He expressed how much he missed having a horse around, and how wonderful it was to see us traveling with a pilchero (packhorse) using traditional chiwas, as he did as a child with his parents.

I’m not advocating the large scale agriculture has to stay the way it is so people can keep those jobs; however, we are talking about a culture of people who are deeply connected with the land, losing the only option they have to be on the land when those jobs do go away. In many ways this culture is slipping away silently.

When we arrived in Coyhaique we stayed with a friend who had bought 1000 hectares of very damaged, overgrazed land and began managing it using holistic ranch management methods with intentional grazing rotation. They are members of the group Ovis 21, who despite receiving some negative press from a narrowly focused PETA campaign a few years ago, has actually had a hugely positive impact on the health of the land where the ranch management techniques are applied. We witnessed this impact, noticing how damaged all of their neighbors lands were while our friend had pastures that were resilient and lush. This is more than an ‘all or nothing’ conversation- we can be dynamic in the way we preserve and nurture wild places and local cultures. “

Another iteration of what this could look like, of involving locals and engaging their skillsets and know-how, was a highlight in our first four months of walking. We had hiked through the popular trails of Cerro Castillo and arrived at the northern edge where there was only one official trail out. Yet, we had beta on a now defunct CONAF trail. None of the park guards posted at the vehicle entrances had knowledge of the area (as they were from other parts of the country) or even knew of the existence of that trail.

It was to our delight that the backcountry outpost from which we sought to launch the exploratory route happened to be manned by Juan, a gentleman who had lived in the campo outside of the town of Cerro Castillo his entire life. As had his parents and grandparents before them. Once we made it through the initial, “no, you can’t go that way. It is closed,” once we saw we had the same information, he became excited and quite open. Sharing everything he had heard of this “once upon a time trail”, indicating the logging roads which would get us there, and warning about the landslide area.

We conversed late into the evening and he shared that he was delighted to have this job, that it was almost by a fluke that he had landed it, as it is very hard for people of low education to get a CONAF position and that most people from the campo can barely read. He professed a dedication to his work, to protecting the land and to holding his job with a tenacity I have rarely seen in park employees anywhere in the world. While he had to use his finger and mutter the words to himself, I watched entranced from the loft as he read by candlelight into the night.

There does exist a middle ground between shunning the poorly educated locals, keeping them and their animals off the land and maintaining an inviting and healthy ecosystem for visitors to get to know. Finding and maintaining that balance will take a lot of work.

There is a lot of positive dialogue happening, and only by giving air to the concerns can we move forward with a complete perspective, in a hopeful direction. In the words of our conservationist friend:

“I have seen a lot of conservation projects all over the world in my career, and I can honestly say that theirs [The Tompkins’] is the most impressive I have ever seen. Everything they do is exceptionally executed with amazing ambition and vision. Overall, I think that their gift is truly a transformational act of generosity and conservation.
.  .  .
And yes, the Chilean Gov’t did originally agree to the dams, and the Tompkins fought like crazy against them. But I think that that the Tompkins also believe strongly that there are many ways of bringing governments around to doing the right thing. And securing this amazing land match represents a huge breakthrough.”

While the idea of the move is a positive one and received a lot of such attention from the international press, the idea does not define the outcome. That will be determined by the execution and there is precious little information on how that has been/will unroll. I think many of us who have been watching, like Greta,  “wish there would have been more actual coverage of the state of the park system here in Chile, and how this will improve how the parks are run or influence that in any way.”

I believe it falls to those who regard this massive move with a critical eye. Not critical in being negative, but rather, objective analysis and evaluation to form a balanced judgement. We can celebrate that this is an unprecedented gift but that also means there will have to be unprecedented effort and structures to make it work and there is not much history or foundation for that and relying on models by countries such as the United States stunts potential from the get-go.

Fortunately, there are people like Greta, Matias, Marcela, Coce, and hundreds of others, who think and live differently. These people stand out and are in the minority, so tapping their wisdom and perspective is crucial to unrolling this in a way which will bring about a positive outcome.

For example, I again turn to Greta:

“I’m brewing up a project down here that is digging into the root of what it would actually take to preserve and conserve large swaths of land/wild places while also supporting local cultural preservation and engaging visitors, and the local community, to be in relationship with the land – through story and curiosity- rather than the typical exploitative or extractive experience of

‘I’m here because I need to get my Instragram photo with the towers.’

Taking a look at access from the perspective of how we can inspire people to be curious and respectful, rather than just giving them some ecological/naturalist facts and rules to follow- we need to create an environment of real connection and relationship with nature. That is the goal. We need to consider the role parks and preserved lands play within the ecosystem of the place they inhabit- they are part of a larger ecosystem after all, one that includes communities and industries and economies. They’re all interconnected, so we have to consider how they are impacting one another, and how this impact can be positive and regenerative.  .  .  . But we’re still in the midst of a long journey. We can do better, we can always do better.”

Yes, we can do better and I believe we must. If you have the curiosity and follow through to have made it through this piece, you hold the promise of the future. Apply that to watching this matter, as information trickles out. Follow up from time to time. Be conscientious and inquisitive when you come to Patagonia. Best of all, be active in the Conservation efforts around your home.

In conclusion, what the Tompkins have done by gifting this land to Chile is a first leap toward unknown potential. Whether and how we as a global community and Chile as a nation and individuals handles this will be the determining factor of the long term effects. The Tompkins have been clear about their intentions. Now it is time for each of us to determine ours.


Massive thanks to Greta for giving me the fodder to write this piece, contributing, and corroborating throughout the entire process.

Thank you to Matt for asking the questions and having the curiosity. To my hiking partner for being patient as I type loudly into the night while camped in the field and push into towns to get electricity and connection to work further.  To the dozens of voices from across Patagonia who replied to my inquiries and shared their insights and experiences. 

It has only been with a great deal of input, advice, resources, and patient editors that this piece is as it stands. I hope it does you credence because each of you are who I aspire to live up to. It is the combination of your insight, hope and humility which drove me to seek your insight and I cannot thank you enough for all you give.

Further Learning:

Tompkins Conservation Website

“The Diverse Properties of Private Land Conservation in Chile: Growth and Barriers to Private Protected Areas in a Market-friendly Context” by: 

Sobremesa

They heap the glittering canisters with bread:
Viands of various kinds allure the taste,
Of choicest sort and savour, rich repast!
-The Odyssey

Written by Fidgit

Haz clic aquí para leer en español

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Table set in Antuco for New Years dinner.

Sobremesa translates as “over the table”, refering to one of those traditions which kind of sneaks up on you. It is the practice of spending time after meals, talking life. Dishes, tidying, sleepy children, will all still be there later. Continue reading

So you wanna hike the GPT

Written by Fidgit
Haz clic aquí para leer en español

The Greater Patagonian Trail is like the long distance trails of the United States insofar as it has a 3 word name which includes the word “trail.” Beyond that, the similarities thin. In fact it is not a trail designed for thru-hiking. Rather it is a network created to promote in depth and “off the beaten path” explorationof the culture and terrain of the deep south.

Beyond the name and intent of designing a way to explore the region on foot and/or packraft (and some sections are bikeable) the GPT has little in common with any other trail you have wandered on. Two significant points of difference are that hikers do not necessarily have the right to hike this route and it is not a contiguous, fluid trail. It is a 3000 km network of trails and rivers which happento have a (roughly) 1800km stretch which connects Parque los Glaciares/Fitz Roy in the south to Santiago, Chile.

The Greater Patagonian Trail has been in the works since 2008 by Jan and his wife, Meylin. They have put a lot of care into its development and share it in good faith. It is their hope that this route become a community project, as growth in the villages and towns and the changing landscape are impossible for any one team to keep up with. In this way, when you come down, find ways to put energy back into the project, people, and communities.

Base line: pack out trash, LEAVE GATES AS YOU FIND THEM, do not have fires unless necessary. Read Jan’s description of the trail 3 times over, know the rules of LNT by heart, then come back to this article and think through each of the questions listed at the end.

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Our map collection from Season 1

In 2000 the Chilean government claimed they would have the Sendero de Chile done by the year 2010 to celebrate the country’s bicentennial birthday.  The foundation, based in Santiago, is now more oriented toward taking groups out to hike. The “trail” itself has become something of a joke to our expedition group, as it is spotty and often times circular hikes in National Parks. We were on it 4 times in our first 3000 km (mostly south of the GPT), usually along roads leading into national parks. The blazes are red and white and generally marked for south-bounders (SoBo). It is clear a lot of money and effort went into it up front and little was left for maintenance. The CONAF guards’ only interest is that you stay on the widely used trails through their parks and that you do not catch them on fire.

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Markers in section 11 out of Puerto Fuy were doubled up – Huilo Huilo birds and SdC red and white stripes.

Firstly the GPT is not a trail because we do not necessarily have a right to be on it. Sections of the route pass through private land. Some are inhabited by owners or caretakers, others are abandoned most of the year except by herd animals (usually sheep, cattle, or goats). These folks have every right to forbid you from crossing their property. For the amount of effort and support US groups such as the CDTC go through to negotiate land easements for trails in the US, it doesn’t seem likely the Chilean government is going to do much to change this anytime soon.

Regarding the private lands, imagine with me:

You are sitting in your living room, minding your own business when out of nowhere there is a knock on the door. A bedraggled stranger stands there and asks to use your bathroom. You are a kind person so of course you let them in. Over the next few years a couple folks appear every now and again, always knocking, asking, respectful, and grateful. They have interesting stories and make the time to explain their crazy adventures to you.

Then, the flow of people increases, and some rude neighbors begin riding their motorbikes and quatris in and leaving piles of trash. Then, in the summer of 2016/2017 over 50 people come parading through.

People quit knocking, stop asking, some do not even speak your language. Still others seem to think they can sneak through. You ask what they’re doing, and they inform you there is a guide about public restrooms and yours is on the list.

Odds are, you are going to do one of two things, lock your door and barricade the windows or start charging.

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Have your shots, as there is a lot of climbing through barbed wire.

That is exactly what has begun happening on the GPT. We do not have the rights to this land, and passing through many of the national parks and preserves dumps you right onto private land. Here we must defer courteously to the landowners.Most of the time, they honestly don’t mind walkers going through, still, being respectful is of the utmost importance. If questioned or pressed, do not get haughty or pushy, they are in the right, you are trespassing. The best we can aim for is to be friendly trespassers. That said, technically there is a law in Chile which affords right of passage within 150 m of water, though this is not always observed.

One rule of campo courtesy is whenever you approach a settlement, whistle a tune. This lets humans and animals alike know you are coming and avoids startling and some unpleasantness. It is also simply the done thing, neighbors recognize each other’s whistles and this gives a heads up that you are a stranger who does not have sneaky or otherwise nefarious intent. The responsibility of approaching and introductions falls to you. If you are passing at the far end of the field sometimes just a nod of the head and friendly wave will do the trick.

On a side-note, if a snarling dog or pack approach, bend over to pick up a rock, or even just pretend to pick up a rock and they will quickly back off and at least maintain some distance.

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Keep your GPS handy as the trail and terrain change quickly

Secondly the GPT is nothing like any of the long distance trails in the US. In fact Neon, who has hiked all 3 long distance trails (AT, PCT, CDT) and several others, has said some sections of the GPT (mostly the southern stretches) are more challenging even than the Continental Divide Trail. It is more of an, as she likes to call it, “choose your own adventure” route.

Many long trails have a certain “feel” to them. “Tells” which – after some months – a hiker can make a fair judgment about what it does next and can begin to consistently log big mile days. This is not the case with the GPT. Sometimes road, sometimes cow path, sometimes completely overgrown. In certain sections, it is heavily marked, but this is inconsistent. Some areas, there is no trail, it is battling through bamboo or cross country navigation with spotty satellite coverage and inconsistent information. The GPT is about proceeding carefully and checking your GPS often. It is not about speed, it is about attentiveness, both to the changing nature of the route as well as the people.

In fact, this season there was a couple out on the trail who embody the spirit of the intent of this trail. In each town they load up with as much food as possible and prolong their time on each section as long as possible, exploring the side valleys, glaciers, and many wonders of the region. As Jan explains it, “this route is designed for appreciation, not speed.”

Defer to the weather and always carry extra food. Patagonia is not a region for ultra-light exploration. In our own traverse we quickly had to disconnect from the US trail custom of spending less than a day in each town. What can be completed in an afternoon with US efficiency here will take, usually, at least a couple. We sometimes spent up to a week completing chores, getting to know the people, or waiting out heavy, dangerous weather.

We learned to carry at least one day worth of extra provisions, having been forced to hole up in abandoned puestos to wait out heavy weather which snuck up on us while high in the mountains.

Already several crews have come down with missions of self-aggrandization and were quickly diverted from their declared intent. So, know your reasons and your limits because, again, as Jan says, “approach this trail with humility or be humiliated.” This trail is not for first time distance hikers, though a number of sections may be good for an introduction to backpacking [see Jans rating scale].

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Do YOU see the trail?

There are segments which are easy to follow and are mostly walking along backcountry gravel roads. These are more mentally challenging than physical because, well, why on earth are you walking something in the blazing sun or drenching rain that could be driven?Then you abruptly come to a point where you have to distinguish whether that empty Gatorade bottle lying on the side of the trail is trash you should pack out, or an indicator left by a campesino pointing to water. On the “local use” routes, trail markers range from nonexistent to colored bits of fabric tied to a bush or teteros, beer cans, or shards of pottery tucked into the branches of trees.

The towns and people are adjusting to international tourism but are still very much in process; most do not know the GPT exists. Everyone is dipping a toe into the growing tourism industry. A man will stand in front of you in roadwork uniform when he spots you crossing his land and inform you he is a fly fishing guide. He has a lure in his baseball cap, why not?

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Families are enthusiastic about being able to earn money, continuing time honored practices such as wool, wood work, planting and being welcoming and hospitable

They are adjusting as they know how, by building things out of wood. Cabanas, quinchas, extra rooms on their houses. Most don’t have internet for their business and information you may find is often inaccurate, even (especially) for bus lines. So now they have a cabana to rent, or are happy to sell you some homemade jelly, bread, eggs, or cheese (best to get this from homes, the laminas in grocery stores taste like plastic). The best way you can encourage the local community to welcome and appreciate the hiker community crossing their land is to support their businesses. This also serves the purpose of emphasizing the benefits of preserving natural resources by showing them to be a money maker as they are, rather than to dam, deforest, or mine it.

In other areas, the south is still catching up for what is coming. Internet can be a bugger. Some municipal buildings and town squares have free public wifi “zona ChileGob”. Connect, open your browser and complete the verification process. Usually these have a half hour limit, which some phones can work around. This is spotty and slow at best; if it is during high use hours (siesta, after school, evening) or windy, good luck. If it happens to be rainy, fat chance. This connection is enough to get a message through or upload a camera FaceBook picture, not enough to upload many high-res images. Sometimes better internet comes from staying at lodging or eating at restaurants. Libraries are few and far between and often have very few open hours only a couple days a week.

You may see canisters of fuel in some of the more excursionista towns but certainly not all. Sometimes we struggle to find fuel at a percentage high enough for our alcohol stoves. I would recommend carrying either an alcohol stove or an MSR Whisper Lite with the fuel conversion option. You can find replacement hiking shoes in some towns as well but they will usually be of a lower quality or exorbitantly expensive. Size 11 shoes are few and far between. Larger than that and you’ll probably need to bring them with.

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Each time we get into town, we check the distances and routes ahead. Comparing GPS to tracking apps to the satellite tracker. The process involves a lot of cookies and Fanta.

Maps are beginning to arise. A solid go-to for general towns and distances are the COPEC (national gas station) maps, though they can be tricky to find as they sell out quickly. Parks often have maps; one maker we have found who has done a lot of work down here is SIG Patagon maps. There are a number of options of map designers who will make maps to your specifications; this takes planning and finances. In this realm, one really good resource is Pixmap. Otherwise, you go without or piecemeal it together.

It seems many US thru-hikers have come to expect Trail Magic as part of the reward of long distance hiking. Down here, it is not trail magic, it is common courtesy to offer any and everything you have to passersby. As the guest, YOU are responsible to show courtesy and restraint. Avoid asking things directly or cornering people into yes/no answers, this is considered confrontational and rude. Bring a gift if you can, as I have been told, wine and fresh vegetables are always appreciated in the campo. Otherwise yerba mate, juice mixes, or tobacco.

Anything you consume, offer some to them as well. I know this goes directly counter to thru-hiker nature so let me repeat. If you eat anything, offer some to everyone you are engaged with. Always greet everyone in the room individually when you walk into a house. The usual greeting is a beso, cheek to cheek with a small kissing noise. Some have learned and are adapting to handshakes, particularly if you are male.

This is not a cheap endeavour, deffinitely not a budget trail. It will cost around $800 per person, per month. This ticket price does not include gear, travel to the country, or much beyond the basics. On top of that stow away at least $200 for exit strategy (this includes: bus fare, lodging, food). Schedules are not tightly kept in South America, so do not count on a bus to arrive in departure city on your intended departure date.

A final note, before you set to ruminating and vigorous Google searching, bring your own ziploc bags from home; the ones down here are flimsy.

Questions to ask yourself before heading to the GPT

Practical:
– Have you previously completed a self supported thru-hike?
– Can you carry at least a week worth of food on your back?
– Have you worked off-trail with the GPS you intend to use on this trail before?
– Are you adept at following routes only available on a GPS?
– What is your backup route finding/tracking plan?
– Are you prepared to backtrack on a regular basis?
– Do you have the finances to complete the trail and to deal with to emergencies?
– What are your time constraints? [On a tourist visa you have 90 days in Chile or Argentina. A single day border hop to another country starts the time over].

Culture:
– Do you speak Spanish?
– Are you observant of practices to respect traditions and cultural norms?
– How do you feel about trespassing?
– How do you handle altercations where you are in the wrong?
– Can you diffuse threatening confrontations?
– How do you handle stressful situations in a foreign language?
– Can you manage your expectations of scheduling in an environment which does not emphasize efficiency? [During unspecified hours in the middle of the day, usually between 12-5 most small town shops shut down for siesta]
– How are you at being attentive and able to read context clues?
– Do you have dietary restrictions? [being a vegetarian makes this region quite challenging though I have heard of it being done].
– Do you know how to drink mate? [Drain the cup, pass it back with the popote facing the server, say “gracias” only when you do not want any more].

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A caffeine stimulant, mate is good for socializing and energy out on the trail.

Connectivity:
– Is your phone unlocked to work internationally? Can it accept a foreign SIM card? (we mainly use ours as WiFi machines)
– What is your plan for communication with family back home?
– Do you have a satellite tracker?

Safety:
– If traveling without a male, as a woman, how do you handle being cat-called and leered at?
-Do you have international travelers insurance which covers both extraction from the field and transportation back to home country?
– Are you prepared to respond to a medical emergency in the field?
– Do you take medications? If so do you have enough for intended stay +1 month. [Keep them in the prescription bottles as border guards may want to check this.]
– Are you up to date on all shots? [tetanus, yellow fever, etc]
– In case of international incident (volcanic eruption, violent protest, police encounters) do you have a point person at home who is prepared to contact the nearest embassy and provide them your information (Name, DOB, Passport #, current location) to get assistance to you?

Logistics:
– Is your passport valid for at least the next 6 months (some border guards/countries won’t let you in if within 6 mo of expiration)
– Do you have at least 2 open passport pages for entry/exit stamps? (Depending on if you plan to do the section which crosses into Argentina in the South).
– Have you registered your travel on STEP (for US citizens) or otherwise with your government?


Traduccion por Henry Tovar

Escrito por Fidgit

He estado recibiendo un montón de preguntas y declaraciones de intenciones sobre el senderismo del Gran Camino Patagónico. A cada respuesta, “la GPT no es un rastro”. Esto parece haber ofendido a algunos. Permítame explicarlo. No digo esto para mancillar, lo digo para:
1) aclarar que no tenemos necesariamente derecho a caminar por esta ruta y,
2) porque me encanta esta zona y estas personas y espero que se les acerque con humildad y respeto.

El Gran Patagónico ha estado en obras desde 2013 por Jan y su esposa, Meylin. Han puesto mucho cuidado en su desarrollo y lo comparten de buena fe. Es su esperanza que esta ruta se convierta en un proyecto comunitario, ya que el crecimiento en los pueblos y las ciudades y el paisaje cambiante son imposibles para que un equipo se mantenga al día. De esta manera, al bajar, encuentre maneras de devolver la energía al proyecto, a las personas ya las comunidades.

Línea de base: empaque la basura, DEJE LAS PUERTAS COMO USTED LOS ENCUENTRA, no tenga fuegos a menos que sea necesario. Lea la descripción de Jan del sendero tres veces, conozca las reglas de LNT de memoria, luego vuelva a este artículo y piense en cada una de las preguntas que aparecen al final.

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Nuestra coleccion de mapas de la temporada 1

En 2000, el gobierno chileno afirmó que harían el Sendero de Chile para el año 2010 para celebrar el cumpleaños del bicentenario del país. La fundación, con sede en Santiago, está más orientada a llevar a grupos a caminar. El “sendero” en sí se ha convertido en algo de una broma para nuestro grupo de expedición, ya que es irregular ya menudo veces circular alzas en parques nacionales. Estábamos en él 4 veces en nuestros primeros 3000 km (sobre todo al sur de la GPT), generalmente a lo largo de caminos que conducen a parques nacionales. Las llamas son rojas y blancas y generalmente marcadas para sur-bounders (SoBo). Está claro que un montón de dinero y esfuerzo entró en él por adelantado y poco se dejó para el mantenimiento. El único interés de los guardias de la CONAF es que permanezcan en los senderos ampliamente utilizados a través de sus parques y que no lo pillen en llamas.

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Los marcadores en la seccion 11 de Puerto Fuy fueron doblados – Huilo Huilo aves y SdC rayas rojas y blancas.

En primer lugar, la GPT no es una pista porque no tenemos necesariamente derecho a estar en ella. Las secciones de la ruta pasan a través de tierras privadas. Algunos están habitados por propietarios o cuidadores, otros son abandonados la mayor parte del año excepto por animales de rebaño (generalmente ovejas o ganado). Estas personas tienen todo el derecho de prohibir que cruzar su propiedad. Por la cantidad de esfuerzo y apoyo que los grupos estadounidenses como el CDTC pasan por negociar las servidumbres de tierra para los senderos en los EE.UU., no parece probable que el gobierno chileno va a hacer mucho para cambiar esto en cualquier momento pronto.

Con respecto a las tierras privadas, imagina conmigo (sé que crees que conoces esto pero escúchame):
Usted está sentado en su sala de estar, ocupándose de su propio negocio cuando de la nada hay un golpe en la puerta. Un extraño desaliñado se para allí y le pide que use su baño. Usted es una persona amable así que por supuesto usted los deja adentro. En los años próximos un par gente aparece cada ahora y otra vez, siempre golpeando, pidiendo, respetuoso, y agradecido.
Luego, el flujo de personas aumenta, y algunos vecinos groseros comienzan a montar sus motos y quatris en y dejando pilas de basura. Luego, en el verano de 2016/2017 más de 20 personas (el número representado por los grupos que hemos estado en contacto con esta temporada con varios diseños) vienen desfilar a través de.
La gente deja de llamar, deja de preguntar, algunos ni siquiera hablan tu idioma. Todavía otros parecen pensar que pueden pasar furtivamente. Usted pregunta qué piensan que está haciendo, y le informan que hay una guía sobre baños públicos y el suyo está en la lista.
Las probabilidades son, usted va a hacer una de dos cosas, trabar su puerta y barricada las ventanas o comenzar a cargar.
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Tienen sus disparos, ya que hay un monton de escalada a traves de alambre de puas.

Eso es exactamente lo que ha comenzado a suceder en la GPT. No tenemos los derechos a esta tierra, y pasando por muchos de los parques nacionales y conserva los vertederos que derecho a tierras privadas. Aquí debemos aplazar con cortesía a los terratenientes. Ser respetuoso es de suma importancia. No te pongas arrogante o agresivo, están en lo correcto, estás invadiendo. Lo mejor que podemos apuntar es ser intrusos amistosos. Dicho esto, técnicamente hay una ley en Chile que permite el derecho de paso dentro de los 150 m de agua, aunque esto no siempre se observa.
Una regla de cortesía campo es cada vez que se acercan a un acuerdo, silbar una melodía. Esto permite que los seres humanos y animales saben que usted está viniendo y evita sorprendente y un poco de desagrado. También es simplemente la cosa hecha, los vecinos reconocen los silbidos de cada uno y esto da una cabecera que usted es un extraño que no tiene intención sneaky o de otro modo nefasto. La responsabilidad de acercarse e introducciones recae en usted. Si usted está pasando al otro extremo del campo a veces sólo un asentimiento de la cabeza y la onda amistosa hará el truco.

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Mantenga su GPS a mano como el rastro y el terreno cambiar rapidamente

En segundo lugar la GPT no es nada como cualquiera de los senderos de larga distancia en los EE.UU. De hecho, Neon, que ha subido los 3 senderos de larga distancia (AT, PCT, CDT), ha dicho que algunas secciones de la GPT (sobre todo los tramos del sur) son más difíciles incluso que el Continental Divide Trail. Es más una ruta de “elegir tu propia aventura”, como le gusta llamarla.

Muchos senderos largos tienen una cierta “sensación” para ellos. “Dice” lo que – después de algunos meses – un excursionista puede hacer un juicio justo sobre lo que hace a continuación y puede comenzar a registrar de manera consistente días de gran milla. Este no es el caso con la GPT. A veces camino, a veces camino de la vaca, a veces completamente overgrown. En ciertas secciones, está fuertemente marcado, pero esto es inconsistente. Algunas áreas, no hay rastro, está luchando a través de la navegación de bambú o de campo a través con la cobertura satelital irregular y la información inconsistente. La GPT consiste en proceder con cuidado y comprobar su GPS a menudo. No se trata de velocidad, sino de atención, tanto a la naturaleza cambiante de la ruta como a la gente.

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Ves el rastro?

Hay otros segmentos que son fáciles de seguir y están caminando sobre todo a lo largo de caminos de la grava del backcountry. Entonces llegas a un punto en el que tienes que distinguir si esa botella vacía de Gatorade que yace en el lado del camino es basura que debes empacar, o un indicador dejado por un campesino que apunta al agua. En las rutas de “uso local”, los marcadores de rastro van desde inexistentes a trozos de tela coloreados atados a un arbusto o teteros, latas de cerveza o trozos de cerámica escondidos en las ramas de los árboles.

Los pueblos y la gente se están adaptando al turismo internacional, pero todavía están en proceso; La mayoría no sabe que la GPT existe. Todo el mundo está inmerso en la creciente industria del turismo. Un hombre se parará delante de usted en uniforme del roadwork cuando él le mancha que cruza su tierra e informa que él es una guía de la pesca de la mosca. Él tiene un señuelo en su gorra de béisbol, ¿por qué no?

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Las familias son entusiastas acerca de  ser capaces de ganar dinero, el tiempo continuo honrado practicas como la siembra y ser acogedor y hospitalario

Se están ajustando como saben, construyendo cosas en madera. Cabanas, quinchas, habitaciones extras en sus casas. La mayoría no tiene Internet para su negocio y la información que encuentre en que a menudo son inexactos, incluso (especialmente) para las líneas de autobús. Así que ahora tienen una cabaña para alquilar, o están felices de vender algo de jalea casera, pan, huevos o queso (mejor para conseguir esto de los hogares, las láminas en tiendas de comestibles sabor como plástico). La mejor manera de animar a la comunidad local a dar la bienvenida y apreciar la comunidad de excursionistas que cruzan sus tierras es para apoyar sus negocios.
En otras áreas, el sur todavía está alcanzando lo que viene. Internet puede ser un maldito. Algunos edificios municipales y plazas de la ciudad tienen wifi público gratuito “zona ChileGob”. Conéctate, abre tu navegador y completa el proceso de verificación. Por lo general, estos tienen un límite de media hora, que algunos teléfonos pueden funcionar. Esto es irregular y lento en el mejor de los casos; Si es durante altas horas de uso (siesta, después de la escuela, tarde) o ventosa, buena suerte. Si sucede ser lluvioso, oportunidad gorda. Esta conexión es suficiente para obtener un mensaje a través o cargar una cámara FaceBook imagen, no es suficiente para cargar muchas imágenes de alta resolución. A veces mejor Internet viene de alojarse en el alojamiento o comer en los restaurantes. Las bibliotecas son pocas y distantes y a menudo tienen muy pocas horas abiertas sólo un par de días a la semana.

Usted puede ver latas de combustible en algunas de las ciudades más excursionista, pero ciertamente no todos. A veces nos esforzamos para encontrar combustible en un porcentaje lo suficientemente alto para nuestras estufas de alcohol. Yo recomendaría llevar una estufa de alcohol o un MSR Whisper Lite con la opción de conversión de combustible. Usted puede encontrar el reemplazo zapatos de senderismo en algunas ciudades, así, pero suelen ser de una calidad inferior o exorbitantemente caro. Tamaño 11 zapatos son pocos y lejos entre ellos. Más grande que eso y probablemente tendrá que traer con ellos.

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Cada vez que llegamos a la ciudad, verificamos las distancias y rutas por delante. Comparacion de GPS con aplicaciones de seguimiento para el rastreador de satelite. El proceso implica un monton de cookies y Fanta.

Los mapas están empezando a surgir. Un sólido go-to para las ciudades en general y las distancias son los mapas COPEC (gas nacional), aunque pueden ser difíciles de encontrar, ya que se agotan rápidamente. Los parques suelen tener mapas; Un fabricante que hemos encontrado que ha hecho mucho trabajo aquí abajo es mapas de SIG Patagon. Hay una serie de opciones de los diseñadores de mapas que harán mapas a sus especificaciones; Esto requiere planificación y finanzas. En este reino, un recurso realmente bueno es Pixmap. De lo contrario, se va sin o poco a poco juntos.

Parece que muchos de los EE.UU. a través de excursionistas han llegado a esperar Trail Magic como parte de la recompensa de senderismo de larga distancia. Aquí abajo, no es magia de rastro, es cortesía común ofrecer cualquier y todo que usted tiene a los transeúntes. Como invitado, USTED es responsable de mostrar cortesía y moderación. Evite preguntar cosas directamente o acorralar a las personas en sí / no respuestas, esto se considera confrontacional y grosero. Traiga un regalo si puede, ya sea yerba, tabaco, vino. Cualquier cosa que usted consume, ofrezca algo a ellos también. Sé que esto va directamente contra la naturaleza de thru-hiker así que permítanme repetir. Si come algo, ofrezca algo a todos los que están comprometidos. Siempre saludar a todos en la habitación individualmente cuando entras en una casa.
Almacenar por lo menos $ 200 para la estrategia de la salida (esto incluye: tarifa del megabus, alojamiento, alimento). Los horarios no están bien guardados en América del Sur, así que no cuente con un autobús para llegar a la ciudad de salida en la fecha de salida prevista. Una nota final, antes de salir a caminar y la vigorosa búsqueda de Google, traer sus propias bolsas ziploc de su casa; Los que aquí abajo son frágiles.

Preguntas que debe hacerse antes de salir a la GPT

Práctico:
– ¿Ha completado previamente una caminata de autoservicio?
– ¿Puedes llevar por lo menos una semana de comida en la espalda?
– ¿Ha trabajado fuera de rastro con el GPS que va a utilizar en este camino antes?
– ¿Eres experto en las siguientes rutas sólo disponibles en un GPS?
– ¿Cuál es su ruta de reserva / plan de seguimiento?
– ¿Está preparado para retroceder de manera regular?
– ¿Cuáles son sus limitaciones de tiempo? [En una visa de turista tiene 90 días en Chile o Argentina. Un salto de la frontera de un solo día a otro país comienza el tiempo encima].

Cultura:
– ¿Hablas español?
– ¿Está usted atento a las prácticas para respetar las tradiciones y las normas culturales?
– żCómo te sientes con el traspaso?
– ¿Cómo manejas los altercados donde estás equivocado?
– ¿Puede difundir enfrentamientos amenazantes?
– ¿Cómo manejar situaciones estresantes en un idioma extranjero?
– ¿Puede gestionar sus expectativas de programación en un entorno que no hace hincapié en la eficiencia? [Durante horas no especificadas en el medio del día, por lo general entre 12-5 la mayoría de las tiendas de la pequeña ciudad cerrada para la siesta]
– ¿Cómo está usted en estar atento y capaz de leer pistas contextuales?
– ¿Tiene restricciones dietéticas? [Ser vegetariano hace que esta región sea un desafío, aunque he oído hablar de ello].
– ¿Sabes cómo beber mate? [Vaciar la taza, pasarla de vuelta con el popote frente al servidor, decir “gracias” solo cuando no quiera más].

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Un estimulante de cafeina, mate es bueno para la socializacion y la energia en el camino.

Conectividad:
– ¿Está desbloqueado su teléfono para trabajar internacionalmente? ¿Puede aceptar una tarjeta SIM extranjera? (Utilizamos principalmente los nuestros como máquinas de WiFi)
– ¿Cuál es su plan para la comunicación con la familia de vuelta a casa?
– ¿Tienes un rastreador de satélite?
La seguridad:
– ¿Tiene seguro de viaje internacional que cubre tanto la extracción del campo y el transporte de vuelta al país de origen?
– ¿Está preparado para responder a una emergencia médica en el campo?
– ¿Toma medicamentos? Si es así tienes suficiente para la estancia prevista de 1 mes. [Guárdelos en las botellas de recetas, ya que los guardias fronterizos pueden querer comprobar esto.]
– ¿Estás al día en todos los disparos? [Tétanos, fiebre amarilla, etc.]
– En caso de un incidente internacional (erupción volcánica, protesta violenta, encuentros con la policía) ¿tiene una persona puntual en su casa que esté preparada para ponerse en contacto con la embajada más cercana y proporcionarle su información (nombre, DOB, pasaporte, ubicación actual) Ayuda para usted?
Logística:
– Su pasaporte es válido por lo menos durante los próximos 6 meses (algunos guardias de fronteras / países no le permitirán entrar si dentro de los 6 meses de vencimiento)
– ¿Tiene al menos 2 páginas de pasaporte abiertas para sellos de entrada / salida? (Dependiendo de si planeas hacer la sección que cruza en Argentina en el Sur).
– ¿Ha registrado su viaje en STEP (para ciudadanos estadounidenses) o de otra manera con su gobierno?

Herstory: She Can Ride

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 The ‘Herstory: She Can’ series profiles women who pursue their passions. Each have stepped up with courage, a message, and a willingness to share her own odyssey. This retelling is based on annotations of conversations with Carol Jones, of Bariloche, Argentina. If interested in taking a horseback ride with her, visit the website.


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“Carol Jones”

When asked what his boss, Carol, can do, Luca, the estancia gaucho suggested, “ella te puede brindar el mejor dia de tu vida.” [She can offer you the best day of your life]. He went on to describe their most recent summer of cabalgatas, horseback tours for visitors, saying, “All summer, every day was a Sunday.”

Carol is what folks around here would call a “NiC.”
Nacido i Crecido
. Born and raised in Bariloche.
While this in and of itself is a unique claim to fame, as with most beautiful tourist towns many residents are imports; in fact, her roots run deeper even than that. In our first conversation, she likened herself to the hardy bushes and shrubs of the land she loves. “I enjoy traveling but when I come back I know I belong here, to this earth.”

Her grandfather, Jarred Jones, was the first pioneer extranjero to establish himself in this area in the time of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, to whom he played host when they rolled through. In a 2009 Interview on her website she shares, “My family’s history has helped me because we have a good reputation throughout the entire area. Specifically my grandfather, and father, as well. My grandfather was always very good with horses. He was a super cowboy! He and my father were very nice, respectful and considerate people.”

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Afternoon mate became wine, dinner, and stories

Carol knows the culture and people as well as she knows the land. As our understanding and appreciation of mate deepens, she teaches us the general delineations of who likes their mate how. Elders tend to like it llullo, while the gauchos like it amargo (bitter). As the evening stretches on talk wanders to local legend and lore, as I continue to collect them for the telling.

We talk about la luz mala, of local lore. “Hay muchas creencias like that here,” she goes on to share a number of hair raising local tales. Her telling transports us fireside, stars overhead, horses nickering in the background. Carol’s perseverance and experience begot wisdom, which she ties back to her relationship with horses.

“I am the same with horses and kids, I try not to influence them but to let them be free. It seems they turn out the same, happy and good but also spoiled.” She laughs. She laughs a lot.

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“Horse packing with Carol” By: Stevie Plummer

In the interview mentioned above, when asked, “What is your favorite part about working with horses?” she replied:

I like to be with them, to saddle them, to move with them. And when I ride, to study them — how they choose trails, how they go on difficult trails, when they hear something what they do, there is always lots of things to learn from them. They are always right. If something wrong happens it is due to humans making the wrong choice and not being observant of what the horse is telling us, always.

In our own conversations she ties this to a larger philosophy. “Hay que observar, mirar, estudiar el caballo” (You have to observe, watch, study the horse), is also a lesson she taught her children about traveling, “go everywhere and do everything but you must be alert, cada uno se cuida solo” (everyone is responsible for themselves).

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A few of her collection at home

This lesson of being observant, one her children and employees know she will always harp on, she practices herself. One example is her horse collections. While her home hosts her figurines from around the world, “at the ranch I have made a ceramic figurine of every horse I’ve ever had. I have probably over 50 now.”

She has always loved horses and working with them. When she approached her parents about the idea to begin running a cabalgata business, her father  did not think this was a woman’s work, but figuring she would tire of it after a season, he loaned her 6 horses. “I borrowed 6 saddles from a friend,” and that was the beginning of her business.

She cites a 1986 trip to Wyoming as a source of inspiration. “There I saw a lot of women doing ranch work and I thought, ‘wow, I like it.’ Back then there were not women doing this sort of thing. The idea of the cabalgatas for visitors was not a known idea. When I started I would go for 6 or 8 days with just one person.” Now, 20 years later, she runs a business with clients from all across the globe, and local cowboys are still surprised when they learn she is still in the business.


Traducción por Henry Tovar

La serie ‘Herstory: She Can’ perfila a las mujeres que persiguen sus pasiones. Cada uno ha intensificado con coraje, un mensaje y una voluntad de compartir su propia odisea. Este recuento se basa en anotaciones de conversaciones con Carol Jones, de Bariloche, Argentina. Si está interesado en tomar un paseo a caballo con ella, visite el sitio web.

 

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Carol Jones

Cuando se le preguntó lo que su jefe, Carol, puede hacer, Luca, la estancia del gaucho sugirió, “ella te puede brindar el mejor dia de tu vida”. Continuó describiendo su verano más reciente de cabalgatas, excursiones a caballo para los visitantes, diciendo: “Todo el verano, todos los días era un domingo”.

Carol es lo que la gente de aquí llamaría un “NiC”.
Nacido y Crecido.
Mientras que esto en sí mismo es una reivindicación única a la fama, como con la mayoría de las ciudades turísticas hermosas muchos residentes son importaciones; De hecho, sus raíces son más profundas que eso. En nuestra primera conversación, se comparó con los arbustos robustos y los arbustos de la tierra que ama. “Me gusta viajar, pero cuando regreso sé que pertenezco aquí, a esta tierra”.
Su abuelo, Jarred Jones, fue el primer pionero extranjero en establecerse en esta área en la época de Butch Cassidy y Sundance Kid, a quien fue anfitrión cuando pasaron. En una entrevista de 2009 en su sitio web, ella comparte: “La historia de mi familia me ha ayudado porque tenemos una buena reputación en toda la zona, específicamente mi abuelo y mi padre, mi abuelo siempre fue muy bueno con los caballos. Super cowboy! Él y mi padre eran muy amables, respetuosos y considerados. ”

 

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El companero de la tarde se convirtio en vino, cena e historias

Carol conoce la cultura y la gente así como ella conoce la tierra. A medida que nuestra comprensión y aprecio de la pareja se profundiza, ella nos enseña las delineaciones generales de quién le gusta a su pareja cómo. Los ancianos tienden a gustarle llullo, mientras que los gauchos les gusta amargo (amargo). A medida que la noche se extiende en la charla vaga a la leyenda local y la sabiduría, como yo continúo recogiéndolos para la narración.
Hablamos de la luz mala, de la sabiduría local. “Hay muchas creencias como ésta aquí”, continúa compartiendo una serie de cuentos locales. Su dicho nos transporta a la hoguera, las estrellas por encima de nosotros, los caballos pellizcando en el fondo. La perseverancia y la experiencia de Carol engendraron la sabiduría, que ella ata a su relación con los caballos.
“Yo soy el mismo con los caballos y los niños, trato de no influir en ellos, pero para que sean libres. Parece que resultan lo mismo, feliz y bueno, pero también mimado.” Ella ríe. Ella se ríe mucho.

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“Embalaje de caballos con Carol” Por: Stevie Plummer

En la entrevista mencionada anteriormente, cuando se le preguntó: “¿Cuál es tu parte favorita de trabajar con caballos?” ella respondió:

Me gusta estar con ellos, ensillarlos, moverme con ellos. Y cuando viajo, para estudiarlos – cómo eligen los senderos, cómo van en senderos difíciles, cuando escuchan algo de lo que hacen, siempre hay muchas cosas que aprender de ellos. Siempre tienen razón. Si sucede algo malo es debido a que los seres humanos hacen la elección equivocada y no son observantes de lo que el caballo nos está diciendo, siempre.

En nuestras propias conversaciones lo vincula a una filosofía más amplia. “Hay que observar, mirar, estudiar el caballo”, es también una lección que enseñó a sus hijos sobre el viaje, “ir a todas partes y hacer todo, pero usted debe estar alerta, cada uno se Cuida solo “(todo el mundo es responsable de sí mismos).

 

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Algunos de su coleccion en su casa

Esta lección de ser observadora, uno de sus hijos y empleados saben que ella siempre se engancha, ella se practica. Un ejemplo son sus colecciones de caballos. Mientras que su casa alberga sus figuritas de todo el mundo, “en el rancho he hecho una estatuilla de cerámica de cada caballo que he tenido. Tengo probablemente más de 50 ahora.”
Siempre ha amado los caballos y ha trabajado con ellos. Cuando ella se acercó a sus padres sobre la idea de comenzar a dirigir un negocio de cabalgata, su padre no pensó que esto era una obra de mujer, pero calculando que se cansaría de ella después de una temporada, le prestó sus 6 caballos. “Le pedí prestada 6 sillas de montar a un amigo”, y ese fue el comienzo de su negocio.
Ella cita un viaje de 1986 a Wyoming como fuente de inspiración. “Allí vi a muchas mujeres haciendo trabajo de rancho y pensé, ‘wow, me gusta’. En aquel entonces no había mujeres haciendo este tipo de cosas, la idea de las cabalgatas para los visitantes no era una idea conocida, cuando empecé a ir por 6 o 8 días con una sola persona “. Ahora, 20 años más tarde, dirige un negocio con clientes de todo el mundo, y los vaqueros locales siguen sorprendidos cuando se enteran de que todavía está en el negocio.

Season 1 Press Release

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Written by Lisa Laney

The two-woman hiking team of Bethany Hughes and Lauren Reed has completed the first stretch of a 32,000-kilometer hike from the tip of South America to the top of Alaska. They finished the hiking season in Bariloche, Argentina after walking an estimated 2,300 kilometres from November 23, 2015 to April 19, 2016, covering 13 degrees of latitude since starting in Ushuaia, Argentina.
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